Transpiration Reduction Factor and Soybean Yield in Low Land Soil with Ridge and Chiseling
Water and oxygen deficiencies in the soybean crop cultivated on lowland soils are an important topic of research. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in water and oxygen supply and soybean yield caused by soil management in lowland soils. A soybean crop was grown under four soil conditions: no-tillage (NT), chiseling (CH), ridge tillage on no-tillage (NTR), and ridge tillage on chiseling (CHR). Soil bulk density, total porosity, macro- and microporosity, air permeability, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured at 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, and 0.35 m depths. Soil volumetric water content was monitored at the same depths every 30 min during the soybean cycle. The transpiration coefficient was calculated from volumetric water content to express both water and oxygen deficiency. The groundwater level was monitored throughout the soybean cycle. Plant performance was evaluated by measuring plant population, shoot dry matter, yield, and taproot depth. Soil porosity, air permeability, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were most improved in CH and CHR, and less in NTR. Nonetheless, expected improvement in soil aeration in CH, CHR, and NTR was eliminated when the water table raised to near the soil surface. The transpiration coefficient indicated that CH decreased oxygen deficiency, but caused little water deficit. The CH also provided the highest yield (4,610 kg ha-1), which was not surpassed by the addition of ridge tillage on chiseled soil (CHR) (4,001 kg ha-1). The lowest yields were observed in NT (2,842 kg ha-1), and NTR (3,565 kg ha-1), in which oxygen deficiency was more severe. Lower oxygen deficiency for soybean in chiseled lowland soil is regulated by the water table. As the transpiration coefficient is dependent on all the processes determining soil water dynamics, it is more informative than soil structural properties regarding water and oxygen deficiency in soybean in lowland soil.