Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in Agricultural Land Use Systems in Subtropical Environments
Changes in land use management in agricultural areas can affect the biodiversity of spider families. This study aimed to evaluate spider diversity in different land use systems with capture by two sampling methods, and to identify soil properties that can modulate the occurrence of spiders. Five land use systems, representative of traditional agricultural areas, were evaluated in the west of Santa Catarina, Brazil, to establish a scale of land use intensity: native forest, eucalyptus reforestation areas, pastures, crop-livestock integration areas, and annual crops under no-tillage. The collection methods were manual from soil monoliths and soil traps. Altogether 479 individuals were captured, which were distributed among 20 families, 40 genera, and 8 species. Principal component analysis separated the land use systems and showed an association of spider families with land use in the two sampling methods. There was reduction in spider diversity as the intensity of land use increased. The manual collection method was more efficient for families of soil spiders, whereas traps were more efficient for epigeic spiders. The Lycosidae family was more resistant to environmental pressures, while Oonopidae and Amaurobiidae were more sensitive to environmental modifications. The differences in the spider communities were explained by the following soil properties: organic matter, mean weight-diameter of soil aggregates, and resistance to penetration, which were associated with the degree of anthropic intervention in the land use systems.