Phosphorus Fractions in Soil with Organic and Mineral Fertilization in Integrated Crop-Livestock System
Use of organic fertilizers in integrated crop-livestock (iCL) systems may affect soil phosphorus fractions. This study aimed to determine phosphorus fractions in the soil under the iCL system after six years of application of organic or mineral fertilizers. The experiment was conducted on a Rhodic Kandiudox (Nitossolo Vermelho Distroférrico) in a randomized block design, using a 5 × 3 + 1 factorial scheme, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of three organic fertilizers (poultry litter, pig slurry, and compost) and two mineral fertilizers (M1, equivalent to pig slurry; and M2, equivalent to poultry litter) in interaction with three application rates, corresponding to 75, 100, and 150 % of the fertilizer recommendation for the crop of interest and a control (with no fertilizer). Soil sampling was performed in the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.20 m layers for determination of the phosphorus fractions. Successive use of organic or mineral fertilizers for six years in the iCL system considerably raises the labile and moderately labile P fractions up to the 0.20 m depth and, with less intensity, raises the non-labile fractions up to the 0.10 m depth. The soil P increase associated with fertilizer input raises soybean and corn yields, and it does not exceed the critical P limit according to local environmental legislation.